Banana is considered as globally significant fruit. In India, Banana is the second most considerable fruit after mango, and Maharashtra ranks first in the production of bananas.
Banana developed in the humid tropical areas of South East Asia, including India as one of its centres of origin. But, instantly, Banana is being cultivated throughout the low, warm regions of the world in about 120 countries. For preparing the best crop, the equipment is used in many ways like an Earth auger it helps in efficient farming. Also, Earth auger machine price is economical for farmers.
As mentioned earlier, bananas need warm, humid, and rainy weather as a tropical crop. Temperature going from 10 to 40-degree Celsius and the relative humidity 80% and above is appropriate for growing bananas. The banana plant is sensitive to dew and frost and cannot bear arid requirements. Dry solid winds can influence the growth of the banana plant, its yield and fruit rate.
Banana is regarded as foodie or heavy feeder plant, so soil fertility is essential. So, the soil for bananas should live in rich loamy soil with good drainage, adequate fertility, water, and plenty of organic matter. The proper pH range is 6 to 8. Nutritionally inadequate, Saline solid and sandy soil is not eligible for banana cultivation.
Land Preparation for Banana Planting
Before planting bananas, grow the green manuring crop like dacha, cowpea, etc., and bury them in the soil. The land can be ploughed 2-4 times and levelled. Use a rotavator or plough to break the clod and bring the ground to a fine tilth. The pits will be refilled with topsoil mixed with 10 kg of FYM 250 gm of Neem cake and 20 gm of carbofuran. Prepared holes are left to solar radiation helps in killing harmful insects, is effective against soil-borne diseases, and aids aeration. In saline-alkali soil where PH is above 8 Pit mixture is modified to incorporate organic matter.
Propagation of Banana Crop
Because palatable bananas do not deliver viable seeds, the source cannot repeat banana farms. Narrow leaves are thus utilised for banana propagation. In addition, the Banana has a shortened underground stem known as a Rhizome that takes many buds. Each of these buds shoots and develops its pseudostem and bulbous rhizome, employed for propagation.
Selected suckers must gathered for the plantation by missing the roots and surface layer to remove any rotten parts. Then, following the necessary treatment of suckers, the plantation can be completed using two generally utilized plantation methods: the Pit process and the Furrow method. Planting can occur from February to May in South India and from July to August in North India.
Fertilizer & Manure
Banana is short-lived plants and quick growing. Therefore, sufficient nutrient requirements can fulfilled all over India by using banana plants. Moreover, the banana plant reacts very well to the application of nutrients. And, in the nutrients noted above, N is provided in three doses during the second, third, and fifth months. And some differences can made as per the location needed.
Irrigation Management of Banana Orchard
Banana, a water-loving plant, requires a large portion of water for maximum productivity. The water needs of bananas has been fitted to be 2000mm per Annum. Drip irrigation and mulching technology have improved water use efficiency. Irrigate the plants instantly after planting. Apply sufficient water and maintain field capacity. And hence drip process is a must for proper water management in Banana.
After Plantation Care
Propping is a traditional practice, proper help is given to the plants through the bamboo to save the plants from slipping in case of heavy currents.
Desuckering is unwanted suckers grown near the plant base are removed by cutting them.
For dwarf varieties, harvesting is done within 12 to 15 months of the plantation. And for tall types, harvesting is done after 15 to 18 months. Maturing signs include plumpness of the fruit, filled angles, slightly metallic sound when tapped, drying off of the top leaves, and colour change of fruits to light green and from dark green.
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